Stocking has often been the first method used to alleviate problems with declining fish populations (Hindar et al, 1991).
In the case of salmonid fishes, stocking based on releases of hatchery-reared fish has been conducted using strains that have been domesticated for several decades (eg Hindar et al, 1991; Hansen et al, 2001; Levin and Williams, 2002).
E-mail: [email protected] Received 24 March 2004; Accepted 7 February 2005; Published online 6 July 2005.
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Until recently, it has not been feasible to apply genetic markers for evaluating the effects of pike stocking activity, due to extremely low levels of genetic variability at the allozyme and mitochondrial DNA level (Healy and Mulcahy, 1980; Seeb et al, 1987; Brzuzan et al, 1998; Maes et al, 2003).
However, recent development of microsatellite markers for pike has provided efficient tools for studying the genetic population structure (Miller and Kapuscinski, 1996, 1997; Hansen et al, 1999; Senanan and Kapuscinski, 2000; Miller et al, 2001).
Thus, prevention of intentional or accidental releases of domesticated or exogenous wild individuals is now recognised as an important element in conservation programmes for plants and animals worldwide (Allendorf et al, 2001).